Peppers are an anti-inflammatory superfood—but go red to reap the most benefits. Out of the three colors of bell pepper, red have the highest amount of inflammatory-biomarker-reducing vitamin C along with the bioflavonoids beta-carotene, quercetin, and luteolin, according to research in the Journal of Food Science . Luteolin has been found to neutralize free radicals and reduce inflammation. Beta-carotene is a carotenoid, fat-soluble compounds that are associated with a reduction in a wide range of cancers, as well as reduced risk and severity of inflammatory conditions such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. And allergy research has shown that quercetin acts as a mast-cell stabilizer, which decreases the number of cells reacting to an allergen. Mast cells are responsible for releasing histamine during inflammatory and allergic reactions.
 Andrew Weil, MD. Can Herbs Combat Inflammation? http:///drw/u/QAA142972/Anti-Inflammatory-
 White B, Judkins DZ (Oregon Health & Science University, Family Medicine, Portland, USA.) Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions? Journal of Family Practice. 2011 Mar;60(3):155-6.
 Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Kuscuoglu N, Wilson J, McCaffrey G, et al. Efficacy and mechanism of action of turmeric supplements in the treatment of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Nov;54(11):3452-64.
 Andrew Weil, MD. Holy Basil to Combat Stress? http:///drw/u/QAA346157/holy-basil-to-combat-
 T. Juntachote, E. Berghofer. Antioxidative properties and stability of ethanolic extracts of Holy basil and Galangal. Food Chemistry. 2005 Sept;92(2):193–202. http:///science/article/pii/S0308814604005497
 Nutmeg. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http:///EBchecked/topic/422816/nutmeg
 Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, Awe SO, Makinde JM, Alada AR. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Psychotherapy Research: PTR. 1999 Jun;13(4):344-5.
 Mueller, Monica, Stefanie Hobiger, and Alois Jungbauer. Anti-inﬂammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices. Food Chemistry. 122 (2010) 987–996.
 NTP Concept Document: Gum Guggul. National Institute of Health. 19 Oct. 2005. http:///go/nom .
 Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R. Anti-inﬂammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008. 3(1): 57-72.
 Babu BH, Jayram HN, Nair MG, Ajaikumar KB, Padikkala J. Free radical scavenging, antitumor and anticarcinogenic activity of gossypin. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Cancer Research. 003 Dec;22(4):581-9.
 Kunnumakkara AB, et al. Gossypin, a pentahydroxy glucosyl ﬂavone, inhibits the transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1-mediated NF-kappaB activation pathway, leading to potentiation of apoptosis, suppression of invasion, and abrogation of osteoclastogenesis. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5112-21.
 NS Parmar, MN Ghosh. Anti-inﬂammatory activity of gossypin of bioﬂavonoid isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. Research Paper. 1978. 10(4): 227-293.
 National Center for Natural and Alternative Medicine (NCNAM). Herbs at a Glance: Cat's Claw http:///health/catclaw.
 Hardin SR. Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inﬂammation in osteoarthritis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2007 Feb;13(1):25-8.