Arachidonic acid pathway corticosteroids

The hydrogenation of vegetable oils to produce semisolid products has had unintended consequences. Although the hydrogenation imparts desirable features such as spreadability, texture, "mouth feel," and increased shelf life to naturally liquid vegetable oils, it introduces some serious health problems. These occur when the cis-double bonds in the fatty acid chains are not completely saturated in the hydrogenation process. The catalysts used to effect the addition of hydrogen isomerize the remaining double bonds to their trans configuration. These unnatural trans-fats appear to to be associated with increased heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, as well as immune response and reproductive problems.

A meta-analysis by Cambridge University looking for associations between heart disease risk and individual fatty acids reported a significantly reduced risk of heart disease with higher levels of EPA and DHA (Omega-3 fats), as well as the Omega-6 Arachidonic Acid. [42] A scientific advisory from the American Heart Association has also favorably evaluated the health impact of dietary omega-6 fats, including arachidonic acid. [32] The group does not recommend limiting this essential fatty acid. In fact, the paper recommends individuals follow a diet that consists of at least 5–10% of calories coming from omega-6 fats, including arachidonic acid. It suggests dietary ARA is not a risk factor for heart disease, and may play a role in maintaining optimal metabolism and reduced heart disease risk. It is, therefore, recommended to maintain sufficient intake levels of both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for optimal health.

As indicated in the Figure above showing the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis a molecule of geranylpyrophosphate (GPP) and a molecule of isopentenylpyrophosphate (IPP) are condensed into farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) through the action of the farnesyl diphosphate synthase enzyme which is encoded by the FDPS gene. Through the action of the ER-localized enzyme, dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (encoded by the DHDDS gene), farnesylpyrophosphate is elongated via the sequential head-to-tail addition of multiple isopentenylpyrophosphate groups in a reaction referred to as cis -prenylation. The number of IPP substrates added ultimately determines the overall number of isoprene units in dolichol which in humans ranges from 17 to 21. The DHDDS gene is located on chromosome and is composed of 10 exons that generate five alternatively spliced mRNAs each of which encode a distince protein isoform. The product(s) of the DHDDS reaction is referred to as a polyprenolpyrophosphate. The pyrophosphate is removed by an as yet uncharacterized enzyme activity that may be either a polyprenol pyrophosphate phosphatase or a polyprenol phosphatase resulting in the formation of a polyprenol.

Prostaglandins and related compounds (collectively referred to as prostanoids or eicosanoids ) such as prostacyclin (PGI2), leukotrienes (LTs) and thromboxanes (TXs) are produced by many different cells in the body. Although their primary physiological actions are generally related to inflammation and hemostasis, by nature they all are vasoactive and can modulate cardiovascular function, particularly vascular tone . Their effects are very localized because they are paracrine hormones ; that is, they are released by one cell and act on nearby cells.

Arachidonic acid pathway corticosteroids

arachidonic acid pathway corticosteroids

Prostaglandins and related compounds (collectively referred to as prostanoids or eicosanoids ) such as prostacyclin (PGI2), leukotrienes (LTs) and thromboxanes (TXs) are produced by many different cells in the body. Although their primary physiological actions are generally related to inflammation and hemostasis, by nature they all are vasoactive and can modulate cardiovascular function, particularly vascular tone . Their effects are very localized because they are paracrine hormones ; that is, they are released by one cell and act on nearby cells.

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