Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
Women’s sports have come a long way since trailblazers like Wilma Rudolph, Billy Jean King, and Althea Gibson. Today, women’s sports are more popular than ever, and female athletes are making more money than ever—both good things. But, as with everything in life, there’s also a downside. Namely, with all that glory and money at stake, more female athletes are turning to performance enhancing drugs than ever before. And while some of them are smart and use the cutting edge drugs that are hard to detect, some of them are (apparently) quite stupid and use the old-fashioned ones that make you look like a freak. I mean, if you thought Barry Bonds looked ridiculous with his Popeye arms and big inflated BALCO balloon head, you should check out the cyclist on this list with the man-sized guns and the five o’clock shadow. Yikes.