Progesterone causes many changes to the genitournary system. A pregnant woman may experience an increase in the size of the kidneys and ureter due to the increase blood volume and vasculature. Later in pregnancy, the woman might develop physiological hydronephrosis and hydroureter, which are normal. [26] Progesterone causes vasodilatation and increased blood flow to the kidneys, and as a result glomerular filtration rate (GFR) commonly increases by 50%, returning to normal around 20 weeks postpartum . [15] The increased GFR increases the excretion of protein, albumin, and glucose. The increased GFR leads to increased urinary output, which the woman may experience as increased urinary frequency. Progesterone also causes decreased motility of the ureters, which can lead to stasis of the urine and hence an increased risk of urinary tract infection. [3]

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