As with any medication, there are possible side effects or risks involved. Common risks from steroid injections include pain at the injection site, bruising due to broken blood vessels, skin discolouration and aggravation of inflammation. Rarer risks include allergic reactions, infection, tendon rupture and serious injury to bones called necrosis. Long term side effects (depending on frequency and dose) include thinning of skin, easy bruising, weight gain, puffiness in the face, higher blood pressure, cataract formation, and osteoporosis (reduced bone density). Steroid injections may be given every 3-4 months but frequent injections may lead to tissue weakening at the injection site and is not recommended. Side effects do not happen in everyone and vary from person to person.
Dexamethasone is given systemically to decrease inflammatory and immune responses. It is used in high doses in emergencies for anaphylactic reactions, spinal cord trauma or shock. It is used in lower doses to treat allergic reactions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), hives, itching, inflammatory diseases including arthritis and to manage and treat immune mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. It sometimes is used systemically as a "performance-enhancing” drug because corticosteroids decrease inflammation, possibly enhance glucose metabolism (there is some debate about this) and may have some mood elevating properties. Other corticosteroids are preferred for intra articular use.
This condition is reported to have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition. However, some people with only one SERPINA6 gene mutation may have symptoms such as fatigue or chronic pain. Alternatively, individuals with two SERPINA6 gene mutations may not have any features of the disorder. It is unclear why some people with mutations have features of the disorder and others do not.