Very-low-dose birth control pills are usually started on the first Sunday after your period starts. If you're perimenopausal but you aren't having regular periods, you can probably take a hormone called medroxyprogesterone acetate (brand name: Provera) to start your period. (Your doctor will check you for pregnancy first.) These pills are taken for 21 days in a row and then not taken for seven days. During the seven days without medicine, your period will start. Seven days later (this will be on a Sunday), you'll start taking the very-low-dose oral contraceptives for another cycle (21 days on the hormone pills, seven days off).
Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been shown to protect against steatosis and alcoholic liver injury. The current study was designed to determine if a similar beneficial effect of MCT occurs in a rat model of NAFLD. Groups of male rats were isocalorically overfed diets containing 10%, 35% or 70% total energy as corn oil or a 70% fat diet in which corn oil was replaced with increasing concentrations of saturated fat (18:82, beef tallow:MCT oil) from 20% to 65% for 21 days using total enteral nutrition (TEN). As dietary content of corn oil increased, hepatic steatosis and serum alanine amino transferases were elevated (P < ). This was accompanied by greater expression of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 (P < ) and higher concentrations of polyunsaturated 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (FA) in the hepatic lipid fractions (P < ). Keeping the total dietary fat at 70%, but increasing the proportion of MCT-enriched saturated fat resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steatosis and necrosis without affecting CYP2E1 induction. There was no incorporation of C8-C10 FAs into liver lipids, but increasing the ratio of MCT to corn oil: reduced liver lipid 18:2 and 20:4 concentrations; reduced membrane susceptibility to radical attack; stimulated FA β- and ω-oxidation as a result of activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α, and appeared to increase mitochondrial respiration through complex III. These data suggest that replacing unsaturated fats like corn oil with MCT oil in the diet could be utilized as a potential treatment for NAFLD.
Levels of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed using ThiolTracker™ Violet GSH detection reagent (Life Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Ku70 –/– cells were seeded in 100-mm dishes at a density of 1 × 10 6 cells/dish and were treated as described above. Four or 24 hr after the initiation of KBrO 3 treatment, cells were harvested using % trypsin, washed in 4 mL of PBS, and stained in PBS containing 10 μM ThiolTracker™ Violet for 30 min at 37°C. Stained cells were analyzed by flow cytometry on an LSRII flow cytometer, and the mean fluorescence intensity was recorded for ThiolTracker™ Violet. The mean intensities ± SEM of three experiments are reported.