Non testosterone based steroids

The partition coefficient of the ester in question is important because is effects how long the drug itself stays in the system. If the testosterone transfers too quickly from the oil to the blood, the result is a sudden spike in testosterone which then rapidly drops once the dose has been used up. In the example of free testosterone injected into the muscle from a water suspension (as in Aquiviron, mentioned above), the testosterone is essentially immediately available to the bloodstream due to its low partition coefficient, and thus there is an immediate spike of testosterone which is used up quickly in the body.

Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.

Free and Bio-Available Androgen Levels . The typical range for free blood serum testosterone is 9-30 ng/dL and bio-available blood serum 80 to 200 ng/dL. The androgens Free Testosterone and DHT (dihydrotestosterone) circulate in the blood plasma unbound or freely at about 2% to 4%. The bound androgens consist of specific protein bound (60%) and non-specific protein bound (36%) which accounts for the remaining 97% to 98%. How are these remaining androgens bound ? The remaining testosterone is bound to specific plasma proteins called SBHG or sex hormone-binding globulin and to nonspecific plasma proteins known as the albumin. The SHBG-bound androgens are biologically unavailable for use by a man's body whereas those non-specific loosely bound to albumin are relatively bio-available. For male hormone replacement and testosterone optimization purposes, Free testosterone which is entirely unbound and Bioavailable testosterone which is weakly bound are the most important measurements to consider.

Testosterone is significantly correlated with aggression and competitive behaviour and is directly facilitated by the latter. There are two theories on the role of testosterone in aggression and competition. [78] The first one is the challenge hypothesis which states that testosterone would increase during puberty thus facilitating reproductive and competitive behaviour which would include aggression. [78] Thus it is the challenge of competition among males of the species that facilitates aggression and violence. [78] Studies conducted have found direct correlation between testosterone and dominance especially among the most violent criminals in prison who had the highest testosterone levels. [78] The same research also found fathers (those outside competitive environments) had the lowest testosterone levels compared to other males. [78]

Non testosterone based steroids

non testosterone based steroids

Testosterone is significantly correlated with aggression and competitive behaviour and is directly facilitated by the latter. There are two theories on the role of testosterone in aggression and competition. [78] The first one is the challenge hypothesis which states that testosterone would increase during puberty thus facilitating reproductive and competitive behaviour which would include aggression. [78] Thus it is the challenge of competition among males of the species that facilitates aggression and violence. [78] Studies conducted have found direct correlation between testosterone and dominance especially among the most violent criminals in prison who had the highest testosterone levels. [78] The same research also found fathers (those outside competitive environments) had the lowest testosterone levels compared to other males. [78]

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