In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rabbits, beclomethasone dipropionate administration during organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 16 at subcutaneous doses equal to and greater than times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m 2 basis at maternal doses of mg/kg/day and higher) produced external and skeletal malformations and embryolethal effects (increased fetal resorptions). There were no effects in fetuses of pregnant rabbits administered a subcutaneous dose times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal dose of mg/kg/day).
Corticosteroids are used in both human and veterinary medicine in both topical and oral formulations. Topical steroid creams or ointments, which generally contain common ingredients like betamethasone, hydrocortisone, and triamcinolone, have a wide margin of safety when ingested. Accidental ingestion in dogs and cats can result in mild signs of gastrointestinal distress (., vomiting, diarrhea); this is typically secondary to the petroleum-based carrier in the topical form. However, some topical creams are contain more dangerous active ingredients which can be fatal when ingested (., calcipotriene, 5-FU, diclofenac, etc.); when in doubt, confirm the active ingredients with your pharmacy or by calling Pet Poison Helpline. For the oral form of corticosteroids, toxic ingestions can result in stomach ulcers, gastroenteritis, and rarely, stomach rupture. Clinical signs of corticosteroid toxicity includes vomiting, bloody vomitus, black-tarry stool, diarrhea (with or without blood), inappetance, abdominal pain, increased thirst/urination/appetite, and excessive panting.
Oral and injectable systemic corticosterois are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.