Diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity is difficult, as an enormous amount of different drugs can elicit various immune-mediated diseases with distinct pathomechanism. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) measures the proliferation of T cells to a drug in vitro--from which one concludes to a previous in vivo reaction due to a sensitization. This concept of the LTT has been confirmed by the generation of drug-specific T-cell clones and the finding that drugs can directly interact with the T-cell receptor, without previous metabolism or need to bind to proteins. In this review, technical aspects and usefulness of this test for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity are discussed. The main advantage of this test is its applicability with many different drugs in different immune reactions, as drug-specific T cell are almost always involved in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Its main disadvantages are that an in vitro proliferation of T cells to a drug is difficult to transfer to the clinical situation and that the test per se is rather cumbersome and technically demanding. In addition, its sensitivity is limited (for beta-lactam allergy it is in the range of 60-70%), - although at least in our hands - it is higher than of other tests for drug hypersensitivity diagnosis. Consequently, drug hypersensitivity diagnosis needs to rely on a combination of history and different tests, as none of the single tests available has per se a sufficiently good sensitivity. Within this setting, the LTT has proven to be a useful test for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions and helped to better understand these reactions. Further work on the simplification of this test and systematic evaluation of its sensitivity and specificity in some main groups of drugs are necessary to make this test more widely available.
Let me start with the good then I’ll get to the bad. Bill Phillips has had a lot of success when it comes to the fitness industry. He knows his information when it comes to eating, working out, loosing weight etc. He has done very well for himself finainclly whether ethically or not but it’s still success. Now let me tell you about my personal experience with Bill Phillips. I attend the Transformation camp in 2012. I was 14, two weeks away from turning 15. One of the youngest to be allowed to join his camp. After the camp, sinced I lived locally, I was able to attend the Transformation center everyday for 12 weeks. In the beginning of the 12 weeks I met a woman named Maria, now known has Maria Phillips. We talked almost everyday over text or calling. A few months later, around March or April, Bill Phillips asked Maria to marry him. At this point they had known each other for about 3 months but she also lived in Canada. She kept telling me that she didn’t know what to do and he was trying to buy her love and that he also lied about some things. She was going to turn him down because of multiple reasons. She deciding not too for some reason unknown to me. Over the next few weeks we got more distant and didn’t talk as much. I asked here why and her reply was, “Bill is jealous and doesn’t want me to talk to you.” I was 15 and he was almost 50! Really? Now, 4 years later, Maria comes into the place where I work (I’m the only one working at a given time) and doesn’t even act like I existed. Maybe she doesn’t remember me or she acts like nothing ever happened. That is my personal story. I still use Bill Phillips recipes and books but he messed up by getting his personal life and business life intertwined.
TV is dead. Long live TV. For decades the box in the corner of our living rooms has been a focal point. We’ve gathered around it to hear some of the biggest news stories of the past half a century, laughed along with global sitcoms, and cried tears over emotional scenes. But while the internet has, and is continuing to massively disrupt many industries, it was difficult to break television’s hold over our lives. Over the past few years this has begun to change. As times have changed, so has the way we’ve watched television, and also how television is made.
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